1421 Evidence

Frontispiece

Part I .i The Europeans Reached the New World with copies of Chinese Maps

Part I .ii The Discovery of the World

Part I.iii – Zheng He's integrated map of the world, 1418

1 Zheng He’s integrated map of the world, 1418 – PRESS RELEASE

2 Liu Gang’s paper – Chinese bi-hemispherical world maps

3 Liu Gang – Map talks without sound – a refutation of the criticisms of his map

4 1418 map AMS dating certificate

5 English Translation of Annotations Depicted on 1418 Map

6 1418 map – Background briefing

7 Dr. Gunnar Thompson’s technical review of the 1418 map

8 Index of maps relating to Gavin Menzies presentation in Beijing, March 22nd 2006

9 1418 map – Gavin Menzies’ presentation to Beijing Press Conference, March 23rd, 2006

10 Records of Zheng He and Kublai Khan

11 Liu Gang’s original article on the 1418 map, 17th January 2006

12 Dr. Gunnar Thompson’s opinion of the 1418 map

13 Charlotte Harris Rees’ opinion on the 1418 map

14 Anatole Andro’s opinion of the 1418 map

15 Professor Robert Cribbs’ opinion of the 1418 map

16 G. A. Bottomley’s opinion concerning the determination of longitude by eclipses

17 Yu Di Tu – Heaven and Earth – a Ming dynasty book

18 Albertin di Virga’s map and Zheng He’s 1418 map

19 Waldseemueller’s maps and Zheng He’s 1418 map

20 Cantino Map of 1502 and Zheng He’s 1418 map

21 The 1418 map in relation to California

22 Preface from Matteo Ricci’s world map for passage to North Sea

23 Pre-European Cartography of the NE and NW passages by Robin Lind

24 A summary Tai Peng Wang’s research on Liu Gang’s map

25 A summary of Lam Yee Din’s research on Liu Gang’s map

26 Chinese Knowledge of the Spherical Earth Centered on the Sun by Gunnar Thompson, Ph.D.

27 The 1418 map – Zheng He’s fleets visits to Peru

28 Determining Longitude by the Equation of Time of the Moon (Professor Robert Cribbs)

29 Zheng He’s method of calculating latitude and longitude

30 Extracts from early Chinese records concerning the deveolpment and use of the magnetic compass

Part II Medieval Chinese knowledge and the Fleets

Part III – Evidence of the Voyages of Zheng He Fleets

1 Introduction

2 Chinese maps, star charts and records which escaped destruction

3 Chinese or Asiatic People found by the First European Explorers

4 Local peoples descriptions of Chinese or Asiatic peoples who settled amongst them before Europeans arrived and descriptions of their ancestry

5 Linguistics and Languages common to the New World and China

6 Accounts of contemporary historians that describe Chinese in the New World

7 Shipwrecks with ”Chinese” characteristics found in the wake of the Chinese Fleet

8 Chinese Porcelain/Ceramics found in the wake of Zheng He’s Fleet

9 Pre-Columbian Chinese Jade found in the wake of the Treasure Fleet

10 Artefacts, gems, votive offerings, coins and funerary urns found in wake of Chinese Fleet

11 Stone buildings or stone artefacts found in the wake of the Chinese fleet

12 Mining Operations found by Europeans when they reached the New World

13 Advanced Technologies found by first Europeans on their arrival in the New World

14 Men and animals indigenous to one continent found in another by the first Europeans

15 Plants indigenous to one continent found on another.

16 Art exported around the world by Zheng He’s fleet / Pictures of Chinese people / junks found in other lands

17 Folklore & Legends / Customs and Games ’exported’ from China to the New World

18 Metal artefacts – armour, weapons and implements found in wake of Treasure Fleet

19 Plant and Animal Breeding (Darwin)

20 Pets left behind by the Treasure Fleet

21 The Mega Tsunami of 1422 – possible scenario

22 The Destruction of Zhou Man and Hong Bao’s fleets in the Southern Ocean by a Tsunami triggered by a comet

23 1424 Chart – Dictionaries used for translation purposes

24 Pre-Columbian charts showing Antilia, Satanazes, Saya and Ymana 1

25 Pre-Columbian charts showing Antilia, Satanazes, Saya and Ymana 2

26 Pre-Columbian charts showing Antilia, Satanazes, Saya and Ymana 3

27 1424 Chart – Groupings of words

28 Selected Bibliography

Part IV – Papers referred to in Genetics Study

Part V The Trading System created by the Chinese – taken over by the Europeans

Part VI Annexes – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to specific places all round the world

1 Annex 1 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to Calicut

2 Annex 2 – Evidence of the Chinese Fleets visiting the Indian Ocean

3 Annex 3 – Evidence on Chinese Fleets visit to Europe through Mediterranean

4 Annex 4 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to Africa – East Coast

5 Annex 5 – Evidence of Chinese fleets visiting Africa – West Coast including South Africa

6 Annex 6 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to Atlantic and Cape Verde Islands

7 Annex 7 – Evidence of the Chinese visiting Brazil

8 Annex 8 – Evidence of the Voyages of Chinese Fleets visiting Paraguay, Argentina and the Falklands

9 Annex 9 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to Antarctic

10 Annex 10 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to Australia – West Coast

11 Annex 11 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to Chile, Patagonia and the Straits of Magellan

12 Annex 12 – Evidence of the Voyages of Zheng He’s Fleets to Peru and Bolivia

13 Annex 13 – Evidence of Chinese fleets visiting Ecuador

14 Annex 14 – Evidence of the Chinese Fleets visiting the Isthmus of Darien First

15 Annex 15 – Evidence of the first Panama Canal

16 Annex 16 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit Trans-Pacific to Australia

17 Annex 17 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to Australia – East Coast and Northern Territories Coastline

18 Annex 18 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to New Zealand

19 Annex 19 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to Spice Islands/ Philippines/ Indonesia

20 Annex 20 – Evidence for the Chinese visit to the Trans-Pacific to America

21 Annex 21 – Evidence for the Japanese Ships which accompanied Zheng He’s Fleets

22 Annex 22 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visiting British Colombia, Washington State and Oregon

23 Annex 23 – Evidence of the Chinese Fleets visiting California

24 Annex 24 – Evidence of the Chinese Fleets visiting Tiguex – Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico

25 Annex 25 – Evidence of the Chinese Fleets visiting Mexico

26 Annex 26 – Evidence of the Chinese Fleets visiting Guatemala, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Panama and Belize

27 Annex 27 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to across the Caribbean to Florida

28 Annex 28 – Evidence of Chinese Fleets visit to Carolinas/ Virginia/ Mississippi/ Illinois/ North Dakota/ Wisconsin and Maine

29 Annex 28b – Evidence of Chinese fleets visit to the Great Lakes, Canada

30 Annex 29 – Chinese Settlements in New England: Boston & Rhode Island

31 Annexes 30, 31, 32 – Evidence of Chinese fleets to Northern Europe – Vice Admiral Chou Wen

Part VII Appendices – The Genetic Legacy of the Zheng He Fleets

1 The Genetic Legacy of Zheng He’s Fleets

2 Hong Bao and Zhou Man – Voyages to South America – The Genetic Legacy

3 Zhou Man – Voyage across the Pacific to Australasia – The Genetic Legacy

4 Zhou Wen – Voyage to the Caribbean, N. America and across the Atlantic to Europe – The Genetic Legacy

5 Zheng He – Voyage from China to North America and back again – The Genetic Legacy

6 Background to DNA Research

7 Synopsis of the principal DNA reports relied upon

8 DNA reports relied upon

9 Relevance of the reports to 1421

10 Epidemics, viruses and parasites

11 Diseases

12 A summary of where Chinese sailors and concubines of Zheng He’s fleets landed in the Americas

13 The Voyage of Zhou Man: The Genetic Legacy Summarised

14 Descendants of Settlers from Zheng He’s fleets who remain today (c. 43 peoples)

15 DNA Evidence of Haida and Aleut Peoples

16 DNA Evidence of Maidu, Yuki , Pima and Wintun Peoples of California

17 DNA Evidence of Gallinomero-speaking people of Healdsburg, California

18 DNA Evidence of Concow people of Chico (Sacramento River, California)

19 DNA Evidence of Navajo People and Apache people

20 DNA Evidence of Mazatec People of Mexico (Olmec culture)

21 DNA Evidence Campeche and Buctzotz Maya Peoples

22 DNA Evidence Waunana and Ngobe Peoples of Panama

23 DNA Evidence of Moskoke (alternative spelling Muskogee) Peoples of S E USA and N W Florida

24 DNA Evidence of Sioux and Cree Ojibwa Peoples of America and Canada

25 DNA Evidence of Ming Ho Peoples of W. Virginia (please refer to Appendix 19)

26 DNA Evidence of Shawnee peoples of the Carolinas

27 DNA Evidence of Indian Peoples of Venezuela and Colombia-Irapa, Paraujano and Macoita

28 DNA Evidence of Surui People of Amazonia, Solimoes/Rio Negro Junction

29 DNA Evidence of Quechua People (Bolivia/Mato Grosso Borders) and Toba (N W Argentina, Salado River)

30 DNA Evidence Inca People of Ecuador

31 DNA Evidence of Maori Peoples of New Zealand

32 DNA Evidence of Waitaha people of New Zealand South Island – Tananaui

33 DNA Evidence of Gunditjmara Aborigines of Victoria, S. Australia

34 DNA Evidence of Nyungah Aboriginal people of Broome and Perth

35 DNA Evidence of Aboriginal people of Darwin, Australia

36 DNA Evidence of Aboriginal people of Fraser Island

37 DNA Evidence of Pate Islanders of East Africa

38 DNA Evidence of Namaqua Hottentot People

39 DNA Evidence of Hawaiian People and the People of Guam

40 DNA Evidence of Yuchis – “The White Indians of Georgia”

41 DNA Evidence of Peoples of the Azores

42 DNA Evidence of Miskito and Sumo (also spelt Suma) Indians of Nicaragua

Part VIII Appendices – Work in Progress

Part IX – Independent Research

1 Rosa Mui and Paul Dong: Ancient Chinese Astronomer Gan De Discovered Jupiter’s Satellites 2000 Years Earlier than Galileo

2 Chinese Herbal Medicine – Mackay Rippey

3 Professor Zhiqiang Zhang – Zheng He reached Australia. Translation by Juntao Li

4 Mark Nickless – Piasa Bird Monster

5 Mr Lam Yee Din – A Third Research on the Discovery of America by Zheng He’s fleet

6 Similarities between Chinese Medicine and Mayan Healing – Antonia Bowen-Jones

7 History of some Native American Tribes which have ‘Chinese’ DNA – Antonia Bowen-Jones

8 Anatole Andro – The 1421 Heresy

9 Dr. Gunnar Thompson – www.marcopolovoyages.com

10 Knowledge of the Spherical Earth Centered on the Sun -Gunnar Thompson, Ph.D.

11 Charlotte Harris Rees and the Hendon Harris Map Collection

12 John H. Ruskamp and John A. Ruskamp Jr. – Chinese influence in North America

13 Prof. Han Zheng Hua – Nanhai, a Chinese territory boundary as surveyed by the “Four Seas Sunshadow

Independent Research – Cedric Bells survey of New Zealand

1 Introduction

2 Map – Geographical representation of evidence

3 Slab Hut Creek, near Reefton

4 Lyttleton Harbour, Christchurch

5 Lyttleton image gallery

6 BANKS PENINSULA: Introduction

7 BANKS PENINSULA: Onuku

8 BANKS PENINSULA: Akaroa

9 BANKS PENINSULA: Akaroa Image Gallery

10 BANKS PENINSULA: Flea Bay

11 BANKS PENINSULA: Flea Bay Image Gallery

12 BANKS PENINSULA: Stony Bay

13 BANKS PENINSULA: Stony Bay Image Gallery

14 BANKS PENINSULA: Otanerito Bay

15 BANKS PENINSULA: Otanerito Bay Image Gallery

16 BANKS PENINSULA: Okains Bay

17 BANKS PENINSULA: Okains Bay Image Gallery

18 BANKS PENINSULA: Le Bons Bay

19 BANKS PENINSULA: Le Bons Bay image gallery

20 THE CATLINS: Introduction

21 THE CATLINS: Cannibal Bay

22 THE CATLINS: Kaka Point

23 THE CATLINS: Surat Bay

24 THE CATLINS: Surat Bay Image Gallery

25 THE CATLINS: Papatowai

26 THE CATLINS: Papatowai Image Gallery

27 THE CATLINS: Tahakopa Image Gallery

28 THE CATLINS: Cathedral Caves

29 THE CATLINS: Cathedral Caves Image Gallery

30 THE CATLINS: Porpoise Bay

31 Dunedin

32 Otago Peninsula

33 Dunedin Botanical Gardens

34 Dunedin image gallery

35 Moeraki Beach, South Island, New Zealand

36 Moeraki image gallery

37 Oamaru

38 Waitaki River

39 Shag Point

40 Shag Point image gallery

41 Katiki Beach

42 Katiki Beach image gallery

43 Rakaia to Ellesmere

44 Rakaia Huts Image Gallery

45 Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand

46 Christchurch image gallery

47 Omarama image gallery

48 Survey of wrecked Junks

49 Survey of Fortified Barrack Blocks

50 Comparison between the Chinese and the Romans

51 Conclusion

52 Results

53 Bibliography

Independent research – New Zealand Update – Antonia Bowen-Jones

1 The Waitaha People – a Chinese colony that settled in New Zealand 2000 years ago.

2 Ruins may show Incas beat Maoris to New Zealand?

3 The Jean Rotz Map

4 Were the Marlborough canals constructed by the Chinese?

5 Paliser Bay Gardens

6 Seagardens

7 New Zealand Plants with a South American or Asian Connection

8 Kune Kune Pigs – How did they get to New Zealand?

9 The Flightless Campbell Island Teal (Anas nesiotis) – How did it get there?

10 Otter Sightings in New Zealand

11 Arrival of Rats in New Zealand 2000yrs BP

12 Evidence of Similarities in Asian and New Zealand Art Work – Global totems

13 Chinese pyramids in New Zealand?

14 The Moeraki Boulders: man-made spheres used on Chinese junks?

15 Chinese ship construction

16 Chinese mining of iron, greenstone, silver and gold in pre-Maori New Zealand

17 Results: Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory – R28235/1

18 Smelter Slag sample

19 Wood sample found at Tahakopa Bay, New Zealand

20 Shell sample found at Tahakopa Bay, New Zealand

21 New Zealand Radiocarbon Database Reports on pre-Maori Human Bones

22 New Zealand Update Summary

Independent Research – Alaska and the Bering Straits – Joseph Davis

Independent Research – New Zealand

Independent Research – The Piasa

Independent Research – Colombia and its environs

Independent research – Wang Tai Peng

Independent Research – Liu Gang – The Ancient Map Code