DNA Evidence of Indian Peoples of Venezuela and Colombia-Irapa, Paraujano and Macoita
1. Principal DNA Report relied upon
(a) Title: Transferrins in Venezuelan Indians: High Frequency of a Slow-Moving Variant.
(b) Authors: Drs Arends and Gallengo – refer to Bibliography.
2. Précis of the Report’s findings
In 50 percent of the Yupa Indians of Venezuela there is a slow-moving transferrins electrophoretically indistinguishable from Tf Dchi which to date has only been found in Chinese. This finding is additional evidence for the existence of a racial link between South American Indians and Chinese.
3. Corroboration or supporting DNA Reports
(i) Parker and Bearn
(ii) Novick et al report into Kobi, Chimilia and Wayu peoples of Venezuela/Colombia.
4. Corroboration or supporting reports into ailments or diseases which suggest Chinese arrived by sea
(i) Hookworm and roundworm – refer to Bibliography.
(ii) “Amerindian mitochondrial DNAs have rare Asian mutations at high frequencies.” – Schurr et al, Am J Hum Genet 1990 (see Bibliography.)
(iii) Work of Dr Isabel Arends into Indian peoples of the Orinoco Delta
(Iv) Scientific American, Feb 2005 – An article on Helicobacter Pylori (the stomach ulcer bacteria) mentions a unique cluster of the “East Asian” s1c strain inland along the Orinoco River. Otherwise, the coastal areas of South America all show the Iberian strain. The authors of the article were confident the presence in an Amazonian population of the East Asian strain of H. Pylori in Venezuela pre-dated European contact and that H. Pylori “can better elucidate the history of population movements than can studies of human mitochondrial DNA.” They also concluded that the presence of s1c is a remnant of Bering Straight migration – Robert Ammirati
5. Did the first Europeans to reach the area in which the Irapa, Paraujano and Macoita peoples live find Chinese already there?
Gonzalo Ximenez de Quesaoa (Muyscas, Guanes and Calima peoples)
6. Other evidence showing links with China
The combination of the work of Dr Arends and Dr Gallengo, that of Annabel Arends, Professor Novick and Dr Parker and Bearn seems to make an overwhelming case that a Chinese colony existed in the foothills west of Maracaibo.
(b) Secondary links with China
(i) Venezuela shown on maps before Europeans reached there – Cantino (1502), Martellus (1484), Waldseemueller (1507).
(ii) Chinese chickens found by first Europeans
(iii) Illustrated Record of Strange Countries published 1430 in China shows S. American animals.
(iv) Coconuts found by first Europeans.
(v) Antonio Galvão cites Chinese claims to have ruled S America before Europeans.
(vi) Chinese jade in Costa Rica/Panama.
(vii) 26 chromosome cotton in Revillagigedo Islands .
(viii) Columbus found Chinese people and horses in Panama .
(ix) Chinese ship dogs.
7. Evidence in Synopsis of Evidence on website www.gavinmenzies.net.
Paras 4, 5, 10, 15, 16, 17, 20. Annex XX.
8. Reference in 1421 The Year China Discovered America