20 Annex 20 – Evidence for the Chinese visit to the Trans-Pacific to America

Annex 20 – Evidence for the Chinese visit to the Trans-Pacific to America

Note: No Polynesian DNA has been found in S. American people (Professor Bryan Sykes). No Inca DNA found in Pacific people (Dr. Matt Hurles’ Cambridge Study). S Arias accounts of light skinned voyagers crossing Pacific.

Southern route

Easter Island
· Chinese carved lion (Kherson Huang).
· Array of plants from across world found by first Europeans (para 15).
· Quadrangular observation platform (John Robinson);
· Chinese chickens (Kuchinsky and H. Wallin).
· The headwear on some of the stone heads is reminiscent of the Chinese official hat with ear coverings at both sides. The Bird Man face paintings are just like that of the Chinese God Kuan Kong (Tracy Chew)
· A Buddha statue at the Eastern end of the quarry site from where the huge stone Moai statues are carved, which a guide insisted pre-dated the other carvings. It is a unique statue: kneeling, with, legs, gazing up (to the stars?) not out to sea, bearded, and with a distinctly rounded head – Matt Cribb

Cook Islands
· Chickens (Kuchinsky and D W Steadman, Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands, 1997).
· Eclipta Prostrata (false daisy) – Mark Parison
Pitcairn
· Quadrangular stepped observation platform.
· Carved rocks showing star alignments
Tuamotu archipelago
· Skeleton with pearl shell from.
Temoe
· Raised stepped stone observation platform.
Cotton – wild form of cultured species of Gossypium, Amphideploid species H.
Tuomotu
· Bora Bora stone platforms.
Raiatea
· Raised stone platform.
Tahiti
· ziggurat stone observation platform (Marae of Mahaiatea) – (Kuchinsky and M Orlac).
· Chickens (Kuchinsky and M Orlac).
· Cotton – as for Temoe
· The journals of Cook his Officers and his crew states that they were supplied with apples from Tahiti on numerous occasions from 1767 onwards. The apples presumably came from the island and from mature trees. Apples are not native to Tahiti - where they carried there by a Chinese voyage? – Chris Hill

Society Islands -
Tuahaia
· Round stepped stone observation platform;
· Tokelau disease.
Samoa
· Savai tiered observation platforms;
· tokelau disease;
· stepped truncated pyramid (Marshall Payn)
· Eclipta Prostrata (false daisy) – Mark Parison
Tonga
· Tonga Tabu ziggurat observation platforms and stone archway;
· tokelau disease.
· ’Chinese’ people (Craig Hill Handy)
· Eclipta Prostrata (false daisy) – Mark Parison
Isle of Niue – Niuean dialect contains particular Chinese words traced to a village in China – Nelson David Mitchell
Fiji - cotton as for Tahiti and Temoe; tokelau disease; ancient ruins on the island of Taveuni that no one can date or understand. There is a huge moat-like structure around what was a village area on a high plateau.  There are still mounded stone bases where huts stood, and a watchman’s hut base that gives a clear view of the only opening in the surrounding reef. There are shards of pottery scattered around…some are blue and white, but the reddish pottery has cross hatching type of decorative marks that weren’t the kind that Fijians used (Angela Blomfield)
· Eclipta Prostrata (false daisy) – Mark Parison
New Caledonia
· Magnetic Island stone pyramid observation platform
· Cape York (Australia) cotton, as for Revilagigedo Islands, Marquesas (Temoe), -Tahiti, Fiji.

GM contends that the people who built pyramids also brought cotton from the Americas – where no Polynesian DNA has been found. They also brought tokelau disease from Malaysia and China (Fonseca).

Northern route across Pacific
· Revilagigedo Archipelago
· Cotton wild form of cultivated species of Gossypium – Amphidiploid species H.

Hawaii

·  Hawaiians only arrived in Hawaii c.600 years ago.
·  On the island of Kauai are fishponds, which according to the legend were built by the menhune – small people who worked at night.  This myth potentially suggests there was another race in the island when the Hawaiians arrived.  More research needed.  (Raja Tamaran)
· Stone fishponds – (Mike Armstrong)
· Menehune aqueduct
· Menehune lizards. –
· Plants foreign to Hawaii found by first Europeans (para 13).
· Stone platforms (Necker) remarkably similar to those of Marquesas.
· Cook found Hawaiians had iron weapons (no iron in Hawaii).
· “Recent” Chinese DNA – Appendix 18A;
· An irrigation ditch on Kauai, made with cut and fit stones.
· ”Ditch” is found in a valley just outside the town of Waimea;
· Fish pond on the Huleia river – a Menhune project – the Menehune were a legendary small folk that may have preceded the Hawaiians. (Allen Wheeler)
· Game in called ‘konane’ which is the same as the game ‘go’ played in Japan. The game boards are carved into rocks at various locations in Hawaii, most notably at the National Park in Honaunau on Island of Hawaii. (Raja Tamaran)
· Eclipta Prostrata (false daisy) – Mark Parison
Kuriles
· Large clam piles similar to ones found in New Zealand and Bimini
Aleutians
· Aleuts have ‘Chinese’ DNA.
· Large clam piles similar to New Zealand / Bimini / Kuriles.
Line Islands
· Kiribati (Gilberts)
· Malden stepped stone observation platforms
· Tokelau disease (Fonseca).
· Micronesia cotton, as in Revillagigedo Archipelago.
· Marshalls/Mariannas cotton, as in Revilagigedo Archipelago; tokelau disease.
· Stepped stone observation platforms
· Guam “Recent” Chinese DNA
Solomons
· Mala, Ulawa and San Cristobal stone observation platforms;
· tokelau disease and
· Chinese pigs
Carolines – Pohn Pei/Nan Madol/Tobi: Nan Madol, stone canals, observation platforms and fishponds; Tobi stone observation platforms; Yao, stone wharves; Lele, canals, stepped stone observation platforms, shell money from N. America.
New Guinea – tokelau disease
· Hula people from Hula mid-way between Port Moresby and Samarai on the South Coast of Papua have Asiatic features.  Local talk has it that a Chinese vessel was wrecked in that vicinity many, many years ago.  (David & Maxine Mundell)

Notes:
(i) For information on cotton see Man Across the Sea Ed. Carol Riley, Ch. 22.
For information on stone platforms see The Geographical Journal XIII (1899).
(ii) For dating of transmission of plants across Pacific see: (i)DNA of Polynesians (2) DNA of Incas (3); DNA of Maoris (4); Chinese DNA
There is no Inca DNA in Pacific islands peoples, no Maori DNA in Incas, but Chinese DNA in both.
(iii) See also arrival of coconuts in Hawaii (post 1300) and of chickens in Easter island (late – post Lapita) and in Cook Islands (late post 1100). Combination of these excludes Lapita people, excludes Polynesians or Maoris as carriers of transpacific plants and vegetables (Kuchinsky; H Wallin, D W Steadman,
J S Athens).

Linguistics, Transpacific
· China – Qipu (knotted string);
· Hawaii Kiipú u; Marquesas Kamla Kipúu
· Peru Quipu (Duncan Craig)

SUMMARY: Cotton, coconuts, chickens, quipus, tokelau disease, and a range of artefacts were carried across the Pacific. Many of these (chickens, cotton) came post-1300. The only possible carrier who has DNA on both sides of the Pacific is the Chinese.
Stepped Pyramid Sizes
Note: (May 2003) GM believes purpose of ziggurats was to raise people above level of tsunami (see para 20)

Place/Lat/Long Discoverer/Description Length/Width (feet) Height (feet) Remarks
*Tahiti (Marae) 149 0 W 175 0 S Capt Cook (McDuff 1799) 259 x 85 c. 45 stepped pyramid Drawn by Domany de Rienzi
*Savai’I Pulenei   200 x 160 Approx 37’ 3 in. Squarely oriented with compass points. Platform 40m with connecting walkway.
*Tonga Tabu 1750 4’ W, 190 14’ S Local artists painted it     Ziggurat pyramid
* Malden (Line Islands) Drawn Dr Macmillan Brown & K P Emory     ‘Great temple pyramids’ ‘early Chinese navigators’,
San Cristobal (Solomons)   60 x 40 20 Mound with shaft.
*Pohn Pei   185 x 115 Approx 40 Stepped pyramids
*Gympie, Australia   100 ft high, 4 ft terraces Terraces 100
*Kaimanawa Wall B Brailsford,  Blocks, stones approx 1.5 x 1   Axes facing northeast Possible step pyramid structure.
(New Zealand) D H Childress (May 1946)
Canaries (Guimar) 280 N, 160 S       Compare with Korean King Jiang Jung Tombs (base 31.6 metres) Mor than ,000 blocks

Legends

Hawaii - When Captain Cook arrived in Hawaii, the reason he was greeted so well was because the Hawaiians had a legend that the Gods would return one day on a boat with square white sails. Hawaiian traveling canoes have triangular sails. Perhaps they were expecting the Chinese? (Samantha Smith)

View maps: The Cantino world map, The Waldseemüller map

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