DNA Evidence of Concow people of Chico (Sacramento River, California)
1. Principal DNA Report relied upon
(a) Title: DNA Print Genomics DNA Test of Concow people of Chico
(b) Author: Tony Frudakis PhD, Head of Research, CSO DNA Print Genomics.
2. Précis of the Report’s findings – work in progress: please refer to Appendix 19
3. Corroborative or supporting DNA Reports
Professor Novick and Colleagues’ report into the Zuni and Navajo people, ‘The Polymorphic Alu Insertions and the Asian origin of Native American’ in Human Biology, Vol 70, No. 1.
Note: It is possible Archivist of Mission Dolores, Dr Jeff Burns, or an anthropologist Betty Goerke knows of existing DNA results.
4. Corroboration or supporting reports which suggest Chinese arrived by sea
(i) Elders of Native American Indian peoples of theUpper Klamath River can still identify Chinese words and intonations in Chinese music (Michael Pincus)
5. Did the first Europeans to reach the area in which the Gallinomero-speaking people of Chico live find Chinese already there?
Yes. Stephen Powers’ report ‘The Northern Californian Indians’ in Atlantic Monthly, Vol 33, 1874, p. 74 in which he considers the Concow people ofChico are descendants of Chinese sailors.
6. Other evidence showing links with China
Wrecked junk on the Sacramento River, a few miles from Chico.
(b) Secondary links with China
The wealth of evidence from this part ofCalifornia as summarised in Synopsis of Evidence, Revision 17, dated 15 June 2003, in particular Annexes XVII and XXIV.
7. Evidence in Synopsis of Evidence on website www.gavinmenzies.net.
8. Reference in 1421 The Year China Discovered America – pages 203 – 298; 396 – 397