1 Analysis of Mortar and Cement

Analysis of Mortar and Cement

We have now retrieved sufficient mortar and hull cement from different parts of the world to start a detailed analysis – for example, comparison of the Tang dynasty mortar in the Lyttleton Fortified Site (New Zealand, South Island) with mortar from a Tang dynasty section of the Great Wall of China. Another example is the Treasure Ship hull cement found embedded in the Moeraki cliffs (New Zealand, South Island) and found at Bimini and in the Miami Ship channel.

Analysis of Mortar

Dr Bob Thomas, PhD of Technology Experts Network, Rome, NY is kindly advising on appropriate analytical techniques, which are:
(i) C14 dating
Disadvantage – clamshells could have widely varying dates
(ii) UV Fluorescence Microscopy
Will identify organic material viz rice
(iii) Scanning X-Ray Tomography
Can identify percentage of each constituent. Very expensive.
(iv) Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX)
Elemental analysis; inexpensive; can be used as comparative tool comparing Chinese and N. American mortar.
(v) Light Microscopy on Polished Surfaces
Will differentiate between materials with varied crystal structure.
It seems to us there are several immediate areas of interest.
1. Inca Civil Engineering
(a) Mortar of Great Wall of Peru compared with Great Wall of China of same date
(b) Cement from Inca Roads
(c) Mortar from Houses – Ancash Province
These examples to be compared with similar ones in China and Peru.  Were the first Inca Emperors Chinese?  Was the Ancash Province of Peru the source of many New Zealand plants and vegetables?
2. Chinese Settlement in North and South Carolina
Dating of mortar from stone houses and dams compared with Chinese and New Zealand mortars of the same date.
3. Trans Pacific Trade
Dating and analysis of mortar from raised platforms on islands across the Pacific to establish:
(a) Whether the platforms were built with ‘Chinese’ mortar

(b) (From dating) Whether building stopped at the same time – viz as a result of the Tsunami occasioned by comet’s impact at 48 degrees south, 166 degrees east

4. Settlements in the Caribbean

Are the mortars and hull cements from Miami ship channel; Palm Beach ‘road’; Bimini ‘road’; Andros platform; Andros circular fish pen and Anguilla road the same  – and the same as in New Zealand?
5. Further ideas would be welcome
Site Substance Contact Remarks
1 New Zealand
South Island
(Tang Dynasty)
Mortar (dark colour) Dave Bell(Rafter Radiocarbon Lab) Lyttleton Fortified SiteDated 782-900AD 769-983AD1+2 Sigma respectively
2 New Zealand
South Island
(Qing Dynasty)
Mortar (light colour) Dave Bell (Rafter Radiocarbon Lab) Lyttleton Fortified Site
1676-1764 (1.5)
3 New Zealand
South Island
Mortar Dave Bell Catlins
4 Vietnam
Great Wall of Vietnam (Ming Dynasty)
Mortar Ms Fran
5 Peru
Great Wall of Chimu
Mortar Patricia Soledad Llosa Mortar requested from Sechin
6 Fiji
Mortar Marshall Payn
7 Mue
Raised Platforms
Mortar Nelson Mitchell Contact Taumafai Fuhiho
8 Easter Island
Raised Platforms
Mortar Kerson Huang
9 Rhode Island (USA) Newport Tower Mortar Bob Thomas PhD Dr Thomas kindly assisting – analysis by Brown University
10 Great Wall of China (Tang Dynasty) Mortar Professor Yingsheng Liu
11 Great Wall of China (Song) Mortar Professor Yingsheng Liu
12 Great Wall of China (early Ming Dynasty) Mortar Professor Yingsheng Liu
13 Peru Cement Patricia Soledad Llosa From an Inca Road and Building
14 West Virginia Dams Mortar Jerry Warsing
15 Virginia Stone Houses Mortar Jerry Warsing
16 Andros Island (Caribbean) Circular Walls Mortar Charles Huegy
17 Hawaii
Raised Platforms
Mortar Paul Harding
18 Samoa (Opulu)
Raised Platforms
Mortar Jenny Gore Mortar requested from platform at S. side of Island
19 Western Samoa
Raised Platform
Mortar Nelson Mitchell
20 St Paul Island (Indian Ocean) French Antarctic Territory Mortar Paul Lewis Mortar requested from Barracks Block
21 China
Tower of Chou Kung
Mortar Through Professor Yao Jide Ming Renovation of 1276 Tower
22 Java Candi Sukuh Mortar Chris Carlisle Mortar from Pyramid (1416-1459) Requested
23 Anguilla (Bahamas) Cay Sal Group Hull Cement Bruce
24 New Zealand Hull Cement Dave Bell (Moeraki) From Treasure Ship embedded in cliff cement shows shape of hull.Cement analysed
25 Miami, Florida Hull Cement Charles Huegy Miami ship channel cement showing shape of bows with bored holes (as in NZ)
26 Bimini Hull Cement and Chocks Bill and Nowdla Keefe or Trimmer Dettor
27 Florida, Palm Beach Hull Cement William Feickert
28 Andros Island (Bahamas) Hull Cement/ Mortar Dr Greg and Dr Lora Little “Ancient Mysteries” 3 Tier Pyramid under 10 feet of water
29 Rock Lake Mortar Underwater Pyramid

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